Plant Reproduction and Diversity

Kingdom Plantae

General Characteristics

Alternation of Generations

Plants with dominant haploid stages

Chlorophyta - green algae. Bryophyta - mosses, liverworts, hornworts.

Plants with dominant diploid stages

Lycophyta (lycopods)

Psilophyta (wiskferns) Sphenophyta (horsetails) Pteridophyta (true ferns)

What adaptations are present which make it more adapted to life on land?

How are plants still tied to the water? What are some limitations of this life style?

The evolution of pollen and seeds

Adaptations to reduce the vulnerability of the gametophyte - gametophyte stage is no longer free-living.
Pollen - male gametophyte, protected by a spore wall (protects from harsh environment)
  • Gain - protection
  • Loss - need some mechanism to carry pollen (air, insects)
Ovule - contains the female gametophyte (the egg sac), protected by sporophyte  tissue (the integument - this becomes the seed coat)
  • Gain - protection
  • Loss - extra care for sporophyte
Seeds - baby plant in a box with its lunch
  • The seed is one of the most distinct adaptations in the plant world
  • The young sporophyte no longer needs to grow and photosynthesize immediately (can go dormant). Can be dispersed (air, animal vector)
  • The plant produces food for each ovule, in the hopes that it will be fertilized
  • Gain - protection, dispersal, dormancy
  • Loss - great energy cost to plant


Cycadophyta - cycads (look like palms) Coniferophyta - conifers (pines, firs, spruces, hemlocks) Ginkgophyta - ginkgo.

Angiosperms - the Flowering Plants Flower structure
  • Sepals, petals, stamens, carpels
  • Pollination
  • Pollen tube
  • Carpel w/ closed ovary


Seeds Vegetables Coevolution with insects Coevolution with vertebrates Types of Angiosperms
  Monocots Dicots
Floral Arrangement 3's 4's and 5's
Leaf Venation Parallel Net
Vascular bundles Scattered Ring
Habit Herbaceous Herbaceous + Woody
Roots Fibrous Taproot
Growth Primary only Primary and Secondary
Examples: Grass, Palm, Orchid Oaks, Roses, Sunflowers


Late Breaking Graphics!!

Click here to view a simplified phylogeny of the kingdom Plantae